Europe at death of Charles the Great 814
Look at this : The crystallization of the western world under Charlemagne. The emirate of Cordoba just forming itself out of the nucleus of the fallen Ummayad dynasty in Iberia, Arabs and Amazigh settling and mixing with the Iberian peoples. England, was not united, but okay, perhaps a unity in anglo saxon culture and not polity. Powys and it’s welsh kingdoms, the Gaels in Scotland and Ireland, and the Norse raiders and settlers and Picts. The Byzantine empire, still incubating in it’s embryo of the Anatolian themes before the last gleaming bastion of glory under the Komnenoi. The Viking principalities and kingdoms and jarldoms of Scandinavia coming into the new world, trading and raiding from Iran to Ireland.
The Slavic tribes emerging from the mist of myths and into recorded history, and beginning to colonize the lands that are theirs to this day, from Macedonia to Russia, despite the nomad warriors that forced their empire upon them. The Baltic and the Finnish and Altaic tribes migrating westwards, from their sacred grasslands and mountains, still proud and free. The steppe nomads beginning their great push westwards, the Bulgars and the Avars and the Bashkirs and the Kypchaks and so many more. The Turks too appearing westwards, establishing their first sultanates, interacting with the Arabs and the Persians, influencing them and being influenced by them. The Abbasid Caliphs strong and imperial with a flurry of intellectual, scientific, literary and spiritual developments and military exploits, a golden age that would become the stuff of legends. And under them, in Persia and Khurasan and Egypt and the Levant and the Maghreb (North Africa ), the indigenous people beginning to reassert their own cultural identities, Flowerings and bloomings that would lead to cultural renaissances.
An age of great migrations and conquests. An age of settling and colonizing and ruling. An age of cultural exchanges and interactions and magnificent melting pots that would forever break the old ways of viewing the world and form a nucleus and set in motion forces, that would give rise to the modern world.